Retina And Uvea

The retina consists of a thin tissue the forms an internal layer at the rear side of the eye. The retina is located close to the optic nerve. The primary functions of the retina include the following.

  • Reception of light caught by the lens
  • Conversion of the received light into neural signals
  • Transmission of neural signals to the brain
  • Achievement of visual recognition

Retinal diseases

Commonly occurring retinal diseases include:

Retinal tear

Retinal tear happens when the vitreous (a centrally located clear, thick substance) of the eye undergoes shrinkage and pulls the retina with enough strain, thereby causing the tissue to tear off.

Retinal detachment

In retinal detachment, fluid is formed under the retina, causing it to move up from its deep-seated tissue layers.

Diabetic retinopathy

This disease occurs in people who have diabetes. The condition is characterized by a deterioration of the capillaries (small blood vessels) located at the back of the eye. As a consequence, leakage of fluid into the retina and under it takes place. This, in turn, causes swelling of the retina and blurred or distorted vision.

Epiretinal membrane

It is a fine, crinkled scar or membrane that develops on the top of the retina.

Macular hole

It is a tiny defect in the macula (the central retinal part situated at the rear side of the eye). The development of the hole causes enough traction, thereby leading to an injured retina.

Macular degeneration

This condition causes gradual degeneration of the macula of the retina, causing blurred vision or a blind spot at its center. Macular degeneration can be of wet and dry types.

Retinitis pigmentosa

It is a congenital, degenerative disease that affects the retina, causing total loss of night and side vision.

Symptoms of retinal diseases

Several retinal diseases manifest the same signs and symptoms, including the following.

  • Blurry, distorted vision
  • Straight lines appearing as wavy
  • Catching sights of cobwebs or floating specks
  • Defective side vision
  • Total loss of vision


The primary objectives of the treatment are to:

  • Stop disease progression
  • Slow down disease progression
  • Preserve the retina
  • Restore or improve vision

Retinal treatment options are generally complex and may be needed urgently at times.

  • Laser surgery is used to repair retinal holes or tears.
  • Scatter laser photocoagulation is a technique used to treat people affected by diabetic retinopathy.
  • Freezing or cryopexy involves the application of coldness by a freezing probe into a retina to correct a tear occurrence.
  • Pneumatic retinopexy technique is used to treat retinal detachment wherein the doctor injects gas or air into the retina.
  • A scleral buckling procedure is used to treat retinal detachment by making an indentation on the eye surface.
  • Vitrectomy is done to get rid of fluid formed under the retina.
  • Medication can be injected into the vitreous of the eye to repair diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, or torn blood vessels.
  • A retinal prosthesis is generally implanted in people who have profound vision loss or complete blindness.


The uvea is situated underneath the sclera, the white portion of the eye. It comprises layers and structures such as:

  • The iris – colored portion
  • The ciliary body – responsible for secreting transparent liquid in the eye
  • The choroid – layer between the retina and sclera consisting of tissues and blood vessels


Uveitis is a condition that causes inflammation of the uvea.


  • Blurred vision
  • Eye pain
  • Eye redness
  • Floaters or dark spots that appear to be floating in the field of vision
  • Light sensitivity
  • Reduced vision


Several treatment options for taking care of the inflammation are available. They include:


  • Eye drops for reducing inflammation
  • Corticosteroid injection in and around the eye
  • Oral intake of corticosteroid tablets
  • Eye drops for controlling spasms in the iris and ciliary and relieving pain
  • Antiviral medications or antibiotics to fight the infection causing uveitis
  • Immunosuppressive drugs to treat uveitis that has affected both eyes or is exceptionally severe to impair vision fully

Surgical procedures


The surgery is rarely carried out to remove a portion of the vitreous, diagnose and manage uveitis.

An implant that releases medication

This procedure is done to attend to people suffering from posterior uveitis that is difficult to treat. The implant slowly discharges corticosteroid medication for a couple of years and cures uveitis.

Get in touch with your doctor if you come across warning signs of retinal diseases or uveitis. Subsequently, you may be referred to an ophthalmologist to seek urgent medication intervention.

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